Pistachios

A picture of a pistachio plant - Plant World

Pistachio is a famous plant belonging to the Pistachio family. It is a perennial tree that reaches a height of 4 m. Its growth requires pollination of its flowers through the presence of trees of different sexes in order for the fruits to grow. As it grows in dry desert areas, pistachios are known as pistachios. This is named after the Syrian city of Aleppo, which is considered the original home of the pistachio plant.

Pistachios are also considered one of the plants that have a high nutritional value and provide the body with great energy and activity. It contains important vitamins such as: Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, and a number of minerals such as; Calcium, phosphorus, and manganese. There are also fatty substances in pistachios ranging from 50% - 60%, in addition to sugars from 10% - 12%.

It is also used in many things; It is used in making sweets, in addition to being one of the delicious nuts that people eat at home evenings and family gatherings. Iran also ranks first in exporting it, followed by the United States of America, Turkey, China, and Syria.

Conditions for growing pistachios

Climate: Pistachio trees need a moderate or semi-desert climate to be grown, as they germinate in the summer and the optimal temperature for their growth ranges between 45-50° degrees, and the level of rainfall must be suitable for the tree; This is because increased humidity leads to the spread and growth of fungi on the tree. Rain also affects the fall of flowers before they turn into fruits, and affects the flowering period by preventing pollen grains from spreading, which affects the pollination process.

Pistachios - the world of plants

The pistachio plant also needs light winds, which help transfer pollen grains that are important for pollination to occur, and it does not tolerate strong winds that hit the fruits and leaves.

Soil: The suitable soil for growing pistachios is deep, fertile soil, which is sandy, calcareous, and characterized by good ventilation, in addition to calcareous soil. It grows more than other plants in salty and dry soil in which the percentage of lime ranges between 50% - 60%. As for wet soil, it does not grow in it due to the spread and growth of fungi and molds on it.

Altitude: The appropriate height above sea level helps provide appropriate humidity and an appropriate rainfall rate. Pistachios grow at an altitude ranging between 600-1300 meters above sea level.

Light: The growth efficiency of pistachio plants increases when exposed to light. It does not grow in dark areas and mountain slopes. Therefore, it is necessary to choose a suitable place that is exposed to sunlight when planting it

How to grow pistachios

Choosing the appropriate soil and preparing it with the appropriate tools to plow the soil to a depth of up to 100 cm, raking and leveling its surface in order to absorb the appropriate amounts of water and stimulate root growth.

Prepare pistachio seeds by placing the seeds in a piece of damp cloth for 24 hours, then transfer them to a plastic bag and place them in the refrigerator for a few days. After that, they are planted in a container suitable for planting the seed and placed in a place exposed to direct sunlight, then take care of watering them with water. .

Within two weeks or less, the seed will begin to germinate. During that period, it needs to be watered with water and fertilizer added to it, which helps in revitalizing the soil and increasing its fertility. Thus, the pistachio fruit grows and increases in size. Then the plant is moved to a suitable place in the garden that has been chosen, fertilized and cared for. in it before; A chemical fertilizer consisting of phosphate and potassium compounds is used to fertilize pistachios in particular.

Growing a pistachio tree from seed

The first thing we need to do is look for fresh, natural harvested pistachios. This may be more difficult than it seems, because almost all newly harvested pistachios are transported to processing units in less than 20 hours. Keep in mind that most pistachios on the market are roasted, so these seeds definitely do not germinate.

In all cases, we need to find seeds that have not been processed in any way.

The seeds must be untreated, unroasted, unheated, and unsalted

Once we find the natural seeds, we have to choose at least 10 of them. Everything done correctly, only 50% or less of the seeds will germinate, and only a small portion of them will form a young seedling and a young tree. We carefully break the peel and collect the seeds. Then, we place it on a wet towel and place the towel in a clear plastic bag

The key from now on is to place the bag at room temperature, but next to a window with access to direct sunlight. We have to check once a week if the towel is wet or not, and add a small amount of water if necessary

When done on a professional level and on a large scale, the plastic bag with seeds is first stored in the refrigerator for 6 weeks, before being kept at room temperature, but on a small scale, a person can skip this step and your germination rate will be lower. Certainly less (90%), but 3-4 seeds out of 10 will finally germinate, without waiting for another 6 weeks)

After about 3-5 weeks, some seeds will germinate naturally.

We grow them in individual small pots containing a special soil mixture (soil with river sand and compost). Seeds should be sown shallowly, at a depth of 1.2 inches (3 cm) and lightly covered with soil clay. Then, we place the pots at room temperature, close to a wide window, so that sunlight reaches the seedlings.

The most important thing from now on is to keep the pots moist but not soggy. When the seedlings reach a height of 6 inches (15 cm), we can transplant them into a larger container

Pistachios - the world of plants

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