Of black cinnamon

Picture of a black cinnamon aphid

The black cinnamon aphids are considered one of the dangerous insects that affect the production, yield and cultivation of cinnamon. How does the farmer deal with it and how is it prevented and treated?

From Black Cinnamon - The World of Plants - Discover Artificial Intelligence and Agriculture

Cinnamon black aphids are considered one of the important agricultural pests that affect Ceylon, Indian, and other cinnamon. This pest leads to the weakness of plants, low levels of production, and the attraction of other pests to orchards. What are the indications and signs of black cinnamon aphids, and how can black cinnamon aphids be controlled? When dangerous?

The black cinnamon aphid is one of the dangerous economic insects that infect cinnamon trees. In most cases, this pest leads to a noticeable weakness of plants and a decline in the level of their agricultural production, thus causing economic damage to farms when trees are infected with these aphids, including Ceylon and Indian cinnamon.

This pest is found in all areas where cinnamon is grown around the world, and is most common in Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, Indochina, Australia, the Eastern Mediterranean countries and Europe.

Description of the insect

The black cinnamon aphid is very similar to other types of aphids. The insect is small, about 1.7-2.3 mm long, and the color is brown or black. The wing is also characterized by the presence of a black-brown spot on the front for black-winged individuals

The black cinnamon aphid attacks leaves, branches, and fruits. Symptoms of infection are:

  1. Nymphs and adults attack the lower surface of the leaves of cinnamon trees and suck their plant juice.
  2. Attacking the leaves results in them becoming twisted and wrinkled, their natural texture changing, and their color turning pale, whether on cinnamon, almonds, berries, or others.
  3. The growth of branches bearing infected leaves on cinnamon trees also stops.
  4. Aphids prefer newly growing or young branches and young leaves of the target cinnamon trees.
  5. The risk also increases when cinnamon trees bloom, and the fruits are covered with abundant honeydew secreted by insects, thus deteriorating the marketing and commercial value of the fruits.

Danger of black cinnamon

From Black Cinnamon - The World of Plants - Discover Artificial Intelligence and Agriculture

The danger of black cinnamon stems from a number of important factors that make it one of the most important insects that sucks plant juices, and the most important factors that make this insect dangerous:

The possibility of other pests being attracted to cinnamon trees as a result of poor plant respiration and growth due to the abundant honeydew secreted by aphids.

This insect is also considered dangerous to the vegetative (aerial) system of the cinnamon tree and may cause its death and complete drying as the infestation worsens.

Also, this pest transmits viruses, as it can transmit about 300 viruses among the registered species, some of which infect cinnamon.

In addition, other insect pests are attracted to infected and weak places, the most important of which are the purple cinnamon scale insect, the fruit scale insect, the scale oleander, the Australian bug, and the bud and fruit worms.

Non-insect pests such as mites, mites, cinnamon bud mites, wilt fungi, canker bacteria and tuberculosis may also be attracted.

As pests overlap among themselves within the orchard or land, the farmer will be forced to apply integrated pest management within the cinnamon orchard to protect it from both aphids and other pests.

What is meant by the economic threshold for a black cinnamon pest is the extent to which there is a reason to use the pesticide in infected cinnamon orchards. In other words, the critical limit for the population of the pest, including nymphs and whole insects. Does it force the farmer to use pesticides, or will the control be costly without any benefits or benefits from applying it in One cinnamon orchard,

We distinguish three cases when infected with this aphid:

  • The first case is when the numbers of the pest population of nymphs and whole insects within the cinnamon orchards are small and do not require the use of pesticides, and the damage is about 8%.
  • As for the second case, it is when the numbers of the insect community reach a stage that threatens the productivity of cinnamon trees, their health, production, and farm yields, and the numbers of the pest community multiply in a way that requires the intervention of the pesticide, and the damage exceeds 15 - 20% and reaches 40 - 50%, and the symptoms appear clearly on the sites of infection, which are the leaves and fruits in Cinnamon tree.
  • While the third case means that the aphids have already reached the critical limit and require the application of control, and it is recommended to use pesticides in infected cinnamon orchards and places where cinnamon is grown, and the directives of agricultural engineers and technicians have tended towards other, better tendencies, such as biological control with natural enemies and predators, preventive control without pesticides, or directives for farmer care. In the cinnamon orchard with irrigation, pruning and fertilization.

There are a number of factors that help the black cinnamon aphid to infect trees, and the most important factors are:

  1. The subtropical climate is suitable for the reproduction and development of aphids on cinnamon trees.
  2. High temperatures are also suitable for the growth and development of aphids within the cinnamon grove and the secretion of honeydew.
  3. The presence of other pests that suck plant juices also helps in infection, such as the red spider mite and the cinnamon bud mite.
  4. The farmer's repeated use of a pesticide every season gives the aphids strength and immunity against the pesticide, as well as other pests that affect cinnamon.
  5. Also, using pesticides in a way that is not appropriate for the pest, the cinnamon tree, or the plant helps in the spread of pests, and the timing of control with aphids is not accurate.
  6. The black cinnamon aphid reproduces throughout the year as parthenogenetic (due to the scarcity of males). Winged individuals also appear in late spring and fly to other trees, such as mulberries, hawthorns, and grapes. The pest often prefers to attack the bolls of peaches, peaches, and almonds in the eastern Mediterranean, and other plant families other than the bolls in East Asia, such as cinnamon.
  7. In addition, it is observed that the number of aphid colonies increases on cinnamon, cocoa, and mahlab trees during the winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, the numbers of the pest decrease in the summer and fall seasons on the same trees.

Farmer monitoring of the orchard infected with aphids

The farmer must monitor the orchard affected by the black cinnamon pest on a regular basis, and this is done through a set of important points that every farmer and farmer must take into account:

  1. Monitor cinnamon orchards and places of cultivation periodically throughout the year, because this aphid reproduces throughout the year in cinnamon orchards.
  2. Monitor the leaves and fruits of cinnamon and other trees periodically and daily, and record any potential infestations by seeing black aphids.
  3. The farmer takes advice from a specialized agricultural technician or agricultural engineer who specializes in plant protection, and informs him of the cinnamon growing orchard where the farmer is certain of being infected with aphids.
  4. In order to control black cinnamon aphids, the farmer must follow a set of procedures, and control is carried out in particular as follows:

Preventive control of aphids

Preventive control of black cinnamon is carried out through a number of procedures that the farmer must follow, the most important of which are:

Farmers should not use any harmful pesticides derived from hydrogen charcoal (such as DDT) on cinnamon trees when dealing with aphids.

Also, no parathenoid derivative pesticides (such as Delta-methrin) should be used on cinnamon trees.

It is preferable for the farmer to use phosphorous insecticides to eliminate other pests that affect cinnamon, such as the bud mite and the pear mite.

The farmer takes care of getting rid of the red mites on cinnamon by spraying with specialized spider pesticides such as Chromopropylate.

The farmer must also get rid of insects that suck plant juices, such as the fruit scale insect on cinnamon, by using the pesticide Parathion-methyl.

The farmer takes care as much as possible to deliver the spray to the lower surfaces of cinnamon leaves while dealing with leaf sap-sucking pests (mealybugs, flies, scale insects, etc.).

The farmer also takes special care of irrigation, but without tamping or flooding. He repeats irrigation of the cinnamon trees 3 times, and when knotting occurs, it is stopped so as not to affect the fruits.

In addition, the farmer must get rid of bacterial and fungal pests (powdery mildew, rust, crown tuberculous, etc.) by spraying copper pesticides on cinnamon trees.

Therapeutic control of the pest

Therapeutic control is carried out through procedures aimed at eradicating the aphid when an infestation occurs on cinnamon. The control is carried out as follows:

  1. Control must be carried out very early and when the cinnamon aphid infestation begins.
  2. The farmer uses pesticides with a systemic effect (because they are most effective against aphids on cinnamon) and because they reduce the harmful effect on pollinating bees that contribute to pollination.
  3. The farmer can use the pesticides Dimethoate and Monocrotophos. The pesticide ethiofencarb can also be used by spraying on cinnamon leaves and infected fruits.

Manna

To avoid the formation of resistant strains by aphids in infected cinnamon orchards, a special pesticide cycle is followed, whereby the pesticide Dimeton-s-methyl is used in the first season of infestation by spraying on cinnamon leaves infected with nymphs and adults.

In the season following the infestation of cinnamon, the pesticide Cypermethren is used by spraying on trees infested with adult insects and small nymphs, targeting new and old leaves, i.e. young ones, old ones, and fruits.

While in the third season, the pesticide Dimethoate is sprayed on parts of the cinnamon plant, especially on the infected leaves during the winter and spring seasons, and the ring itself is changed after 9 years and new pesticides are used provided that they have the same properties and (of course the composition differs somewhat) and that they are phospho-organic and work. Against both adults and nymphs.

Biological insect control

As for biological control, it means relying on natural enemies, and the most important advantages of biological control in cinnamon orchards are:

  1. Reducing the costs of using chemical pesticides that harm pollinating bees and natural enemies found in cinnamon orchards.
  2. Biological control also does not cause any harm to the environment around the cinnamon orchard, especially animals and humans.
  3. This control is carried out by multiplying predators such as Abu al-Eid predators Coccinella, as these predators can be present naturally or be multiplied in the laboratory and released into the cinnamon orchard.
  4. The insect-pathogenic fungus Baeuveria bassiana can also be used, and the insect-pathogenic bacteria Bacillus thuriengensis can also be used in cinnamon, raspberry, and almond orchards.
  5. In addition, farmers can purchase biopesticides that contain these vital enemies, such as Plant-guard, and spray them on cinnamon, cherry, almond, raspberry, and other trees.

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