Chrysanthemum

Picture of a daisy flower

Planting roses How do I plant chrysanthemums?

Introduction to the chrysanthemum flower

The chrysanthemum is a flowering plant that belongs to the Asteraceae family, from the chrysanthemum genus. Chrysanthemums are characterized by having a variety of different shapes, sizes, and bright colors, including the following colors: yellow, white, purple, green, pink, red, and many other colors, often Daisy flowers are often ball-shaped.

The basic daisy has a single layer of petals arranged in a disc shape wrapped around a small center in the middle. Some other types of daisy have several layers of petals, with the petals curving upward and inward, while in some other species the petals curve toward the ground.

The original home of the chrysanthemum

The subtropical and temperate regions of the world are the original home of the chrysanthemum, and the cultivation of chrysanthemums is particularly widespread in East Asia. Chrysanthemums still grow wild in China and other Middle Eastern countries, in grasslands, mountain slopes, river banks, and beaches. The seas and the fields.

Types of chrysanthemums most suitable for home cultivation

There are many types of chrysanthemums that can be grown at home, the most prominent of which are the following:

Spider chrysanthemum

It is a type of chrysanthemum flower that has long, thin petals that resemble spider legs. Although they are long and tubular, their petals often spread in all directions and appear ornamental, and the colors of their varieties range from pink, to yellow, and bronze.

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Chrysanthemum Anemone

These flowers contain a central disk surrounded by tubular petals. There are many varieties of this type, including the Angel variety, which has a yellow center and small lavender-colored petals, in addition to somewhat larger outer petals, usually colored in dark purple and their tips. White.

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Decorative chrysanthemums

These flowers vary in size, and their petals cover the inner discs and do not curve inward. They are flat and have small flowers. They are an ideal type for growing in agricultural pots. Their varieties include Lexi, Honey Glo, and Tobago.

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Mums spoon chrysanthemum: The petals of this type take the shape of a spoon at the edges of the disc, and its disc is circular in the center.

How to plant chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums can be grown by following these steps:

  1. Choose healthy, strong chrysanthemum seedlings, or healthy seeds when purchasing to plant them.
  2. Choose a location that gets 6-8 hours of sunlight.
  3. Dig several holes to plant seedlings so that they are at least twice the size of the seedling roots. The size of holes suitable for planting seeds is approximately the size of a pen, and you can easily dig them with your fingers.
  4. Leave a distance of 45-50 cm between the holes to provide enough space for the flowers to grow without interfering.
  5. Add a sufficient amount of fertilizer, about 2.5 cm, at the bottom of each hole, as the fertilizer aerates the soil and makes it easier for plant roots to breathe.
  6. Gently place the seedlings in the holes, making sure they are not tilted to any side. If planting seeds, place 5-6 seeds in each hole, then fill the rest of the holes with dirt after placing the seedlings or seeds, and pat the soil with your hands to level it.
  7. Chrysanthemums are expected to sprout in early or mid-fall, if grown from seed.

Preparing for planting chrysanthemums

Below is the most important information regarding preparation for planting chrysanthemums:

How to extract chrysanthemum seeds and prepare them for planting

Below are the steps for extracting chrysanthemum seeds and preparing them for planting:

  • Chrysanthemum seeds gradually mature and fall apart to fall to the ground, as the plant does not retain them inside itself like other plants.
  • The seed heads at the lower part of the stem mature first and the upper seed heads mature later.
  • Seeds are collected when they begin to completely turn brown and begin to fall to the ground.
  • The seeds are taken and spread on a piece of tissue paper to dry for a day or two before storing them in containers.
  • An amount of powdered milk or rice is placed at the bottom of storage containers to absorb any excess moisture, then a piece of paper tissue is placed on top of the milk powder, then chrysanthemum seeds are placed on top of it, the containers are closed, and stickers are placed to write the date of storage and the type of seeds on them.
  • It is stored in cool, dark and dry conditions, so the seeds can remain germinable for two to three years.

The most appropriate times to plant chrysanthemums

It is preferable to plant chrysanthemums at the beginning of the spring, after the frosts have ended, and before the weather becomes very warm.

Soil characteristics suitable for growing chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums can grow in most types of soil, but they grow best in well-drained soil with consistent moisture. Hard, dry soil prevents the roots from becoming embedded in the soil, while wet, swampy soil causes the roots to sink in.

Watering the chrysanthemum

The following is the most important information related to the chrysanthemum irrigation process:

Watering schedules

Chrysanthemums need to be watered continuously throughout the spring, summer, and fall. Watering can be stopped during the winter. It is preferable for watering to be done early in the morning to a depth of 15-20 cm weekly.

Irrigation methods

The ideal way to water a chrysanthemum is to water directly at the base of the plant, with perforated hoses fitted to water in even amounts and at consistent times without having to water manually.

Irrigation quantities

The chrysanthemum needs about one inch of water per week, and it must be watered frequently when the lower leaves of the plant begin to turn brown or during long periods without rain. It is preferable to water in moderation so that its leaves do not wilt or change color.

Taking care of chrysanthemums after planting

Here is the most important information regarding chrysanthemum care:

Fertilizers that stimulate the growth of chrysanthemums

It is preferable to fertilize the chrysanthemum once a month if it is planted in the spring, until it blooms in the fall. It is preferable to use a 5-10-10 fertilizer to fertilize the plant, as these numbers indicate the percentage of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in the fertilizer. This means This means that the fertilizer must contain twice the percentage of nitrogen for both phosphorus and potassium.

Diseases that may affect the chrysanthemum flower and their treatment

There are many diseases that may affect the chrysanthemum flower, the most prominent of which are the following:

Ascochyta Ray Blight: A fungal disease that causes delayed flower growth on one side of the buds, and a brown discoloration appears on the petals. The brown and black color also extends to the bottom of the stem, leading to the flower drooping, and irregularly shaped spots appear on the leaves. Its color is black to brown, so watering from above should be avoided, and appropriate fungicides should be applied to protect healthy plants.

Bacterial Leaf Spot: Small, dark brown to black spots on the lower leaves enlarge and become irregular in shape. The spots become brittle and crack when the affected leaves dry. The disease often spreads to one side of the plant, so watering should be avoided. Using sprayers to keep the surfaces of the leaves dry, and to protect plants growing outdoors from splashing water around them.

Verticillium Wilt: The margins of the lower leaves of the plant wither and die, or the entire leaf dies, and symptoms persist on one side of the plant, so it is preferable to plant in soil free of pathogens.

How to harvest chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums are harvested three months after their planting date, every four days, and the fully opened flowers are hand-picked with or without the stem.

Chrysanthemum care tips

There are many useful tips and ideas for caring for chrysanthemums, the most important of which are the following:

  1. It is recommended to plant the chrysanthemum in a dry, high place where there is good air movement, and it is not preferable to plant it in wet places.
  2. The chrysanthemum must be pruned before it blooms, by cutting the upper part of the plant (approximately 1 cm), while it is still in its growth stage when its length ranges between (15-30) cm, as pruning encourages the germination of more flowers, when the time for flowering comes in autumn.
  3. It is recommended to remove wilted and dead flowers from the plant, as this encourages the growth of new flowers in their place.
  4. It is preferable to add a layer of mulch around the plant to maintain soil moisture and keep weeds away.

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