Bean leaf miner fly

Bean fly - how to recognize, prevent and manage the legume pest

Bean leaf miner fly

  • Name of the disease

Bean leaf miner fly

  • The scientific name

Melanagromyza phaseoli

  • Type of disease Family of disease

Type: Insectivorous

Disease family: Agromyzidae

  • Symptoms of bean fly

The larvae feed in the leaf tissues, creating winding tunnels between the two skins of the leaf until they reach near one of the veins of the leaf. Then they head to the neck of the leaf and enter under the skin of the stem. When they reach near the surface of the soil, they have reached their full growth and cannot be near the surface of the soil. The infection leads to yellowing of the leaves, the formation of pods decreases, or they may become atrophied, and the infected plants are susceptible to breakage.

  • Causes of bean fly

The symptoms are caused by larvae and adults of the bean fly, one of the most destructive pests in the world. They are widespread insects in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa, Hawaii and Australia.

في بعض الحالات، يمكن أن تؤدي الإصابة إلى خسائر 30-50% يبدو أن شدة الاضرار موسمية، مما يؤدي إلى ارتفاع معدل موت النباتات في موسم الجفاف بشكل كبير في حين يكون قليلاً في موسم الامطار (80%) مقابل %13% على التوالي).

Both adults and larvae cause severe damage, especially to seedlings.

  • Suitable conditions for the spread of bean fly

Conditions for the spread of infection: July and August crops.

  • Bean fly development cycle

The female lays eggs individually under the upper epidermis of the leaflets, on the first vegetative leaf, and the eggs hatch in the inner tissues of the leaflets. The new larvae feeds from the epidermis of the leaflets, creating winding silver-colored tunnels that indicate the void that the larvae creates behind it. The larvae move to the middle vein of the leaf and from there to the sheath of the compound leaf, then the neck, then the stem until they reach near its end in the area between the roots and the stem, where they turn into pupae. The pupation period lasts 8-13 days. Then the adult insects emerge to mate and repeat the life cycle. The pupae can be identified by the presence of swellings on the leg under which the pupae live, and the leg becomes easily breakable during the generation period of 19 - 41 days.

Number of generations: 10-12 generations per year.

  • Photos of the disease at its beginning and after its spread, in high quality, at least 5 photos in high quality

Stem fly attacks soybean | Farm Online | Farmonline

Agromyzidae - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

Bean fly - how to recognize, prevent and manage the legume pest Bean leaf miner fly - world of plants Bean fly - how to recognize, prevent and manage the legume pest

  • Losses of disease spread

This fly has been seen in bean fields in Wadi Shuaib and the Jordan Valley, especially in greenhouses and also in the open field. The insect may cause swelling and splitting in the stem.

In severe attacks, the plant can seize (collapse), wither, and die. If the plant survives, it will have reduced growth and yield. It may produce adventitious roots (roots formed from non-root tissue) to compensate for the damage. The return loss can reach 100%.

  • Control strategy
  • Mechanical control
  • Physical control (tillage, sanitation, pruning, solarization)
  • Insecticides
  • Preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of the disease

1- Getting rid of weeds and taking care of various agricultural operations.

2- Collect the infected leaves and dispose of them by burning them if possible, if the infection rate is small.

3- Caring for plants in terms of fertilization and irrigation in order to resist infection.

4- Determine the date of emergence of the adult insect and perform preventive spraying before laying eggs in infested areas.

  • Chemical control recommendations

Acetamiprid 20%

Amdacloprid 20%

  • Anti-membership recommendations

There are many natural enemies of flies. Many wasps that parasitize on caterpillars, including the braconid wasp of the Obius species, are widely used in both Asia and Africa. Two species, Obius fascioli and Obius omportatus, were introduced to Hawaii in 1969 from East Africa, but some bean fly infestations still occur. The death rate of seedlings in some areas reaches 90%. Products based on fungal fly pathogens have also been tested as a possible tool for fly control in East Africa.

All references and their links must be mentioned

https://misrelzraea.com/%d8%b0%d8%a8%d8%a7%d8%a8%d8%a9-%d8%a7%d9%84%d9%81%d8%a7%d8%b5%d9%88%d9%84%d9%8a%d8%a7-%d9%85%d8%b3%d8%aa%d8%b4%d8%a7%d8%b1-%d9%88%d8%b2%d9%8a%d8%b1-%d8%a7%d9%84%d8%b2%d8%b1%d8%a7%d8%b9%d8%a9-%d9%8a/

https://plantix.net/ar/library/plant-diseases/600264/bean-fly/

https://bioprotectionportal.com/ar/resources/bean-fly-control-recognize-prevent-and-manage/#:~:text=%D8%B0%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A9%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%20%D9%87%D9%8A%20%D8%B0%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A9%20%D8%B5%D8%BA%D9%8A%D8%B1%D8%A9,%D9%88%D9%84%D9%83%D9%86%D9%87%D8%A7%20%D8%AA%D8%B5%D8%A8%D8%AD%20%D8%A8%D9%86%D9%8A%D8%A9%20%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%83%D9%86%D8%A9%20(O.

https://mail.almerja.com/reading.php?idm=213372

https://agricultureegypt.com/News/39742/%D8%B0%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A9_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%B5%D9%88%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7..%D8%AF.%D9%85%D8%AD%D9%85%D8%AF_%D9%81%D9%87%D9%8A%D9%85_%D9%8A%D9%88%D8%B6%D8%AD_%D8%A3%D8%B9%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%B6_%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A5%D8%B5%D8%A7%D8%A8%D8%A9_%D9%88%D8%B7%D8%B1%D9%82_%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D9%83%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%AD%D8%A9_/

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