Eastern red hornet

Eastern red hornet - the world of plants

Eastern red hornet

  • The scientific name : Vespa orientalis
  • The type of disease: Insect
  • the family : Hymenoptera
  • Symptoms of the eastern red hornet:

Partial or complete biting of ripe grapes

- Corruption of neighboring bunches, which harms the marketing qualities of grapes and increases the possibility of the spread of mold and various fungi.

Eastern red hornet - the world of plants

-A picture showing the symptoms of the infection The eastern red wasp (Wasps feed on grapes).

*Description of the insect:

- A medium-sized insect with a clear waist - The insect is reddish-brown with yellow spots on the abdominal rings - The compound eyes are black and the forehead with the top of the head is yellow - The antennae are brown - The insect has three simple eyes on the top of the head. Figure

The larvae are white, spindly, and are located inside the hexagonal eye. They weave a silk cocoon, inside which they transform into the pupal stage.

-The virgin is of the free type and is white in color.

Eastern red hornet - the world of plants

-A picture that shows you what the complete insect looks like.

Eastern red hornet - the world of plants

An image shows you laying eggs inside the cracks and starting to form a nest.

Eastern red hornet - the world of plants -An image showing you the eggs being laid inside a beehive and the larvae beginning to hatch and emerge.

Eastern red hornet - the world of plants

-A picture shows you a wasp nest.

  • Causes of the eastern red hornet:
  • Oriental hornets usually live in nests that they dig underground, or they build their nests from tree leaves, pieces of wood, and straw inside protective hollows, such as inside hollow trees, in shipping containers, and in parked and old vehicles.
  • Dates attack citrus fruits, so the presence of an infected field transmits the infection to grapes
  • The presence of damaged meat.
  • The rain stops early, as the warm climate creates a suitable environment for this insect to reproduce
  • The wasp obtains sugary substances from various nectar sources in the surrounding environment, such as plant secretions and aphids, or it preys on worker bees.
  • Suitable conditions for the spread of the eastern red hornet:
  • . The highest suitability values ​​for the insect were predicted to be in warm temperate regions and some arid regions with a humid subtropical, semi-arid or desert climate.
  • There is a honey bee hive nearby.
  • Neglecting early injury
  • The presence of a water source nearby.
  • Eastern red hornet disease development cycle:

Wasps make their nests from soil mixed with saliva in such a way that the cells are oriented, and the age of the nest or colony is one year.

The insect goes through the winter period in the form of a fertilized queen that emerges from its dormancy in the spring, as it searches for a suitable place to build a nest and prefers the gaps in walls, rocks, and soil.

The queen begins building the first hexagonal eyes, where she lays the first egg, and so on

After the eggs hatch, food is provided until the workers emerge, who follow and help in developing and building the nest, which may have up to five layers, and the layers are connected to each other by thin appendages made of the same material as the nest.

The life cycle of the worker in the summer takes about 29 days, the queen 42 days, and the male 39 days. The number of workers increases in summer and fall, and in the fall the wasps build new nests with wide eyes, and the eggs give females and males that mate, so the females become new queens while the males die. As for the fertilized females, they spend the winter in silence until the spring of the year

  • Losses from the spread of eastern red hornet disease
  • It attacks the fruits of agricultural crops after they have matured, causing damage, such as grapes, dates, and others.
  • The eastern hornet may sting humans
  • The oriental hornet exhibits special defensive behaviors that can lead to an allergic reaction. If there are serious allergy symptoms, seek medical attention immediately.
  • Wasps attack beehives to obtain honey or bee insects. The numbers of wasps are usually large, which causes confusion for the bee colony and may ultimately lead to the colony’s migration or death.
  • Control strategy
  • Preventive measures to prevent the occurrence of eastern red hornet disease

-Destroying the nests by burning or fogging with BHC after sunset

- Use paper bags around grape bunches to protect them from damage.

Queens can be caught using rubber bats that hit the queen while she is flying and frequent the waterways at the beginning of spring.

  • Chemical and organic control recommendations
  • Organic control: The eastern hornet has enemies from birds such as the warbird.
  • Use intact baits placed inside the nest that contain a sugary substance + a toxic substance such as: lindane, malathion, or sevin.

Chemical control: using calcium cyanide at the entrance to the nest after sunset

- In the event that the nest is not identified or is difficult to reach, the Lanit 90% pesticide is applied to the feathers or entrails of the chicken and placed in the areas of insect nests, taking into account searching for the queens during the fall during the mating period and killing them.

  • References
  • Werenkraut, Victoria, Marina Paula Arbetman, and Paula Nilda Fergnani. “The Oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis L.): a threat to the Americas?.” Neotropical Entomology (2021): 1-9
  • Zucca, P., Granato, A., Mutinelli, F., Schiavon, E., Bordin, F., Dimech, M., … & Spanjol, K. (2024). The oriental hornet (Vespa orientalis) as a potential vector of honey bee's pathogens and a threat to public health in North‐East Italy. Veterinary Medicine and Science, 10(1), e1310
  • Ishay, J. S., Abes, A. H., Chernobrov, H. L., Barenholz-Paniry, V., Parmet, Y., & Fuchs, C. (1995). Building activity and longevity of queenless groups of the Oriental hornet, Vespa orientalis. Bulletin of mathematical biology, 57(3), 441-460





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